Discipline; Definition, Principles, Causes, and Types

Discipline; Definition, Principles, Causes, and TypesThe word discipline is synonymous with the English word ‘discipline’ which is derived from the word ‘disciple’. This means- ‘disciple’ is expected to obey the disciple. Hindi has derived this word from the Sanskrit root ‘shas’. It means following the rules, obedience control. From the point of view of the literal meaning, the process of discipline has the meaning of obeying the rules, controlling obedience, etc.

Definition of discipline

According to Raeburn- “Discipline in a school generally means orderliness and observance of rules and orders in the performance of tasks.” This definition explains the external nature of the discipline itself. 

According to Persinon- “Discipline lies in the surrender of any emotion and force to a rule. It is imposed on the disorder, and instead of skill and futility, produces skill and economy, maybe part of our nature counteracts this control, but its recognition is ultimately on voluntary acceptance.

According to John D.V. – “The distance between the information provided in the school and the development of student character is actually because the school has not been able to become a social institution”.

According to him – “The actions of which results or conclusions are obtained, by doing them socially and cooperatively, the discipline of its form arises.”

Discipline; Definition, Principles, Causes, and Types

Principles of Discipline

There are three principles to establish discipline. According to Norman, McMann, and Adams, there are three principles – repressive, dominant, and dominant.

  1. repressive theory
  2. affective principle
  3. libertarian principle
  4. suppressive theory (repressive theory) – 

This means that to establish discipline, the teacher should use thrashing and physical punishment and force, etc. The believers of this theory believe that removing the stick spoils the child. Therefore, they give all rights to the teacher over the children. It also includes harsh and ruthless punishment. This theory does not care about the natural tendency of the child, but naturalist and realistic education philosophy has opposed such discipline. In the commune, such schools were called slaughterhouses, and establishing discipline in such a way was considered unscientific. 

This principle is contrary to the democratic education system. This principle reflects the failure of the teacher because the teacher is unable to discipline and influence the students with his teaching and behavior. This theory is now believed to be of antiquity.

Impressionistic theory (affective principle) – 

This theory is based on the influence of the personality of the teacher. An ideal moral relationship is established between the teacher and the students. In this, a high standard of conduct and behavior is expected from the teachers. In our country, in Vedic education, the teachers (Guru) used to follow the students through their conduct and activities by keeping them disciplined. Due to this, a cordial relationship was established between the teacher and the disciple. It is considered to be the middle way, but, indeed, it is not possible to say what effect the teacher’s influence will have on the students, sometimes students lose their privacy. These things require special attention.

Muktyatmk theory (libertarian principle) –  

The basis of this principle is the independent nature of the child. Naturalist educationist is a strong supporter of this. Rousseau Birdsworth, Huxley, Mandessori and Fröbel also support its use. Birdsworth has recognized that the child has all the qualities to control himself and we should motivate him to react in the natural environment. The ban on corporal punishment from the modern education system is the result of this philosophy. It is believed that-

  1.  Freedom gives the child an opportunity for natural growth.
  2. Freedom prevents mental distortion by strengthening emotions and feelings.
  3. Independence gives children balanced mental health.
  4. It instills confidence and self-reliance in children.
  5. It inculcates in the child an attitude of seeing the difference between right and wrong, as wrong hurts him, from which he learns.

There were some drawbacks from this principle, such as lack of experience, lack of experience, immaturity found difficulty in creating proper ideals from more freedom, arbitrariness, and rule violation.

These three ideals reflect their importance. Too many things get worse. We should take out the middle part of us so that the tendency towards the proper use of freedom with discipline can arise in him. 

Giving his views in this regard, Ross has written – “True freedom requires moral and social control, for this, the method of influence is most appropriate and desirable, it establishes true discipline.” In this way, we have effective discipline. Activate the liberating discipline by considering it as the root and only the shadow of the suppressive discipline should be visible.

What is the Cause of indiscipline?

Discipline gives meaning to freedom and gives the order to the environment instead of anarchy, which is the need to know in advance what are the factors of indiscipline. We will see them collectively under special points-

Inappropriate environment ( unsuitable environment ) – 

The environment is also a major factor in indiscipline.

  1. Education system not being objective.
  2. Laziness and apathy of schools/colleges/universities.
  3. Lack of interest and motivation of teachers.
  4. Teaching methods are not standard, interesting, useful, and effective.
  5. The teaching-learning process is not effective due to a large number of students in the classes.
  6. Lack of proper guidance on various educational and psychological problems.
  7.  Ignoring the facts like need, interest, fatigue, and entertainment in the determination of timetable
  8. Dissatisfaction among the students due to lack of transparency in the examination system, due to lack of proper evaluation.
  9. Isolation of students from society due to lack of importance to community activities in educational institutions.
  10. Lack of proper mortality due to lack of moral education.

Corrupt social environment ( Dirty Social Environment ) – 

The social environment influences the overall activities of the child and it also affects the sense of discipline in the students.

  1. The defects prevailing in the society (caste discrimination, religious bigotry, and regionalism).
  2. Promotion of pornography and pictures.
  3. Billion due to increasing population.
  4. Indifference to social ideals.
  5. Lack of ideas, neighborhood, companions.

Inappropriate family environment ( inappropriate family environment ) – 

Children are the product of the properties of inheritance from their family and the influence of the family environment. If the environment of the family is unsuitable, then their whole life gets affected. The low cause of the family gives rise to indiscipline.

  1. Absence of sweet relation between family discord (parents, grandparents, children, and others) relations.
  2. Ignoring, neglecting, not giving full attention to their children by the parents. 
  3. The economic and social status of the family is not respectable.
  4. The negative effect of being more generous towards every behavior of the students. 
  5. Frustration stems from unnecessary control over children.
  6. Gender discrimination in the family.
  7. Lack of proper arrangement of space in the house.

Physical and psychological causes  

Low physical and psychological conditions at a particular age are the reasons for indiscipline.

  1. Unbalanced development of adolescence.
  2. Physical weakness (prolonged illness, congenital).
  3.  Congenital bad behavior habit.
  4. Lack of suitable conditions for refinement and solicitation and modification of behavior.
  5. The origin of frustration is due to not getting proper shelter of feelings and thoughts.

What are the features of the discipline?

Discipline is of utmost importance in life because a disciplined person can run life smoothly, that is, the first key to success is discipline. Discipline means that whatever work we do, it should be done in such a way that it can be arranged properly in a short time. From this point of view, only the person is disciplined, who knows to understand his actions and translate them into practice.

Discipline is the first step in personality development. Education is related to culture. When every baby is born, it is like clean paper. Some mature people are needed to equip it. In the process of this development, he becomes cultured. The providers of his values ​​want his child to be polite and well-behaved. He should have good habits, he should be skilled in doing work, he should be polite and character, he should give respect to elders and love to younger. Parents who want a child with such qualities make every effort to give good values ​​for this. The systematic system of culture of virtues is called education. 

That is, parents, want to provide quality education to their children. The education of the child who received the sacraments could not be possible spontaneously. In the initial stage of the child, in the Zanskar, only the Zanskar provider plays an important role. By giving proper orders and instructions to the children, efforts can be made to create the desired values ​​in them, only the observance or imitation of those orders and instructions or commands by the child can be called discipline. Obedience is synonymous with discipline. No child can receive the desired values ​​without discipline. Therefore discipline is indispensable in education.

Discipline; Definition, Principles, Causes, and Types

What are the types of discipline?

  1. Teacher-imposed discipline
  2. group-charged discipline
  3. self-imposed discipline
  4. work imposed discipline
  5. Natural discipline
  6. official discipline
  7. social discipline
  8. Personal discipline
  9. Professional discipline
  10. repressive discipline
  11. Effective discipline
  12. free discipline

Teacher-imposed discipline

The discipline organized by the teacher is necessary to some degree. For example, primary school children have a great need for control and guidance as they are unable to form the required group size for organized work in the absence of appropriate support. As children mature, they not only develop skills but also develop an interest in working with self-disciplined groups and a need for their standards of self-discipline. On the one hand, they want someone to set limits on their conduct, and on the other, they want to test or challenge these set limits. An effective teacher can give opportunities to the children to develop naturally and spontaneously, but he is also able to set limits on their conduct in a given period.

The teacher problem related to discipline can be seen as a leadership problem. One approach to the study of leadership clarifies two aspects: “initiation of structure” and “idea”. “Leadership activities related to structure-undertaking include directing, controlling, punishing, setting limits, rewards, cleverness, organization determination, following standards, etc. “Thought” includes such behavior as – showing sympathy and understanding, compromising, helping, Inviting, and using suggestions from group members and being their supporters. A questionnaire assessing these two aspects has been developed and used under the leadership of the Ohio State University’s Personal Research Board. Most leadership roles require both structures, initiative, and thought. It is generally considered undesirable to emphasize one aspect to the exclusion of the other.

Group-charged discipline

The second type of discipline is a group-imposed discipline in which the teacher attempts to harness the forces generated by class groups to enable them to bear the burden of helping students to control their conduct and develop ideas.

Self-imposed discipline

When children learn to respond to adult guidance, they successfully pass a stage of social and emotional maturity. When they respond to their group, they are at a very advanced stage of development. To make students responsible and thoughtful citizens, they should be able to develop and respond to group norms and this is possible only when they come to think through their conduct.

Work imposed discipline

Tasks that keep our attention focused and demand more time than the allotted time. Once started, it becomes difficult to stop or leave them. Every such work has its discipline. They are more able to adapt their conduct to the needs of the tasks that the students want to accomplish and show more self-discipline. This work-charged discipline is based on meaningful motivation.

Natural discipline

According to Rousseau and Spencer, supporters of naturalistic discipline, the child should be left to nature. He should be given opportunities to work on his own and gain knowledge from his own experience. In this way natural discipline will develop in him. If he works according to nature, he will get success and if he works in the opposite direction, he will get failure.

Official discipline

The meaning of this discipline is to live under the authority of elders. This type of discipline begins after infancy. The child obeys the orders of the parents, elder siblings, etc. in the family and obeys the orders of the principal and teachers in the school. When the child completely obeys the commands, he gets a kind of reward, but when he violates, he gets punished.

Social discipline

This discipline means following social rules and ideals. Social discipline depends on social control. With proper social control, the child will not engage in anti-social activities. Therefore, social praise, censure or social condemnation creates a sense of discipline in him.

Personal discipline

We can also call it self-discipline or self-control. When a person has completed his mental development and when he starts to understand the difference between good and bad, then this discipline starts. This discipline prevents a person from doing bad deeds and creates a sense of self-control in him. When self-discipline is developed in a person, then he does all the work with his conscience.

Professional discipline

This discipline means that the person should be disciplined in his professional life. In other words, a person should be able to conduct his professional life efficiently. He should be honest, efficient, hard-working, very intelligent, regular, and punctual in his business.

Repressive discipline

This is a very ancient ideology in the field of education. According to this, the strictest punishment is arranged in the schools to improve the students. In the 18th century, this statement was prevalent in the schools of Europe – ‘Spare the rod, spoil the child’. In such schools, there was no respect for the personality of the child and it was believed that punishment was given. From the miscreant to the miscreant, the child also becomes straight.

Effective discipline

Idealism is the basis of effective discipline. According to the idealists, the teacher should inculcate discipline in the children by the influence of his personality, and not by punishing him in a veiled manner. The thoughts of the teacher, his character, his ideas should be so high that the students should bow down before his personality and try to become the same himself.

Free discipline

Liberal discipline means the discipline based on freedom, that is, the child should get complete freedom for his development, only then he will be able to work according to his interests, tendencies, and feelings and will be able to develop his personality fully. Particular supporters of this discipline are Rousseau and Spencer. Many modern psychologists are also supporters of this theory. According to them, since the child is born free, it is wrong to hold him in the chains of bondage. The opinion of these scholars is that repressive discipline produces mental glands in the child and effective discipline tries to impose the influence of the personality of the teacher on the children by ignoring the differences.


Discipline; Definition, Principles, Causes, and Types

Categories: Psychological