Jerome Bruner’s theory of cognitive development

  • Jerome Bruner was an American psychologist who proposed a new theory on cognitive development that is found in an alternative form to Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. 
  •  Bruner’s model of cognitive development was presented. According to him it is the model by which man adjusts to his environment.
  •  Bruner mainly emphasized how the infant expresses its feelings mentally. And how to think in infancy and childhood. He believed that the child expresses his feelings mentally in the following three ways. 

Jerome Bruner has given three stages of development. (Jerome Bruner has described three stages of development.)

(1) Enactive Stage Cognitive Representation, Activation Method 

(2) Iconic Stage Visual Pattern Representation view, icon method

(3) Symbolic Stage Symbolic representation, symbolic method 

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1. activation method Enactive Stage) (period from birth to 18 months) 

 In this method, the child expresses his feelings through these verbs. Like giving hands and feet when hungry, crying etc. 

2. Iconic Stage (18 to 24 Months)

 In this method, the child expresses his feelings by making some visual model from his mind. At this stage, there one learns the most from perception. 

3. Symbolic Stage (from 7 years onwards)

 In this method, the child expresses his feelings through phonetic signals (language). And in this stage children develop the ability to relate symbols to their original ideas. or seems to happen. 

 utility in education

  •  In the selection of teaching methods according to the mental strength of the child. 
  •  According to the level of children, proper intellectual development of the child can be done by making necessary amendments in the planning, implementation and evaluation process of the education plan. 
  •  In the formulation of curriculum according to mental level. 
  •  In making teaching plans about knowledge before starting new topics. 

 Features of Bruner’s theory

  • These principles emphasize on creating a ‘conducive environment’ for coordinating with the child’s past experiences and new subjects. 
  •  This theory emphasizes reinforcement in learning. 
  •  This principle recognizes that how the subject matter should be structured so that children can learn easily. 
  • According to this theory, education develops both personal and social qualities in the child.

Jerome Bruner’s theory of cognitive development