What is psychology?
Psychology-DefinitionPsychology (Psychology) the educational and Anupryogatmk lore which beings (humans, animals, etc.) and mental processes (mental processes), experiences and express and implied Daenaen type Wyvharaen is a systematic and scientific study.
it can be said that psychology is such a science. It is the study of systematically observable behavior and the mental and physical processes within the animal, such as thinking, feeling, etc., and their relationship with the phenomena of the environment. In this context, psychology has been called the science of the study of behavior and mental processes. ‘Behavior’ includes both human behavior and animal behavior.
Under the mental processes sensing (Sensation), attention, Perception, learning, memory, thinking come, etc.
Psychology is the science of experience. Its purpose is to analyze the elements of the process of consciousness, the nature of their interactions, and the laws that determine them.
Definitions of Psychology
- According to Watson, psychology is the definite or pure science of behavior.
- According to McDougall, psychology is the true science of behavior and behavior.
- According to Woodworth, psychology is the science of human behavior in contact with the environment.
- According to Crow and Crow, psychology is the study of human behavior and human relationships.
- According to Boring, psychology is the study of human nature.
- According to Skinner, psychology is the science of behavior and experience.
- According to Mann, modern psychology is concerned with the scientific discovery of behavior.
- According to Garrison and others, psychology is directly related to human behavior.
- According to Gardner Murphy, psychology is the science that studies the responses of living individuals to their environment.
- According to Stephen, educational psychology is the gradual study of educational development.
- According to Brown, human behavior is changed through education and the study of human behavior is called psychology.
- According to Crow and Crow, educational psychology describes and explains the experiences of an individual from birth to old age.
- According to Skinner, education psychology includes all the behavior and personality related to education.
- According to Kolesnik, the application of the principles and results of psychology in the field of education is called educational psychology.
- According to Saare and Telford, the main relation of educational psychology is with learning. It is that part of psychology that is particularly concerned with the scientific exploration of the psychological aspects of education.
- According to Kilford, the study of child development enables us to know what to teach and how to teach.
- According to Skinner, the application of findings related to human behavior and experience in the field of education is called educational psychology.
- JM According to Stephen, educational psychology is the gradual study of educational development.
- According to Trowe, educational psychology is the study of the psychological aspects of educational situations.
- According to BN Jha, the process of education is completely dependent on the grace of psychology.
- According to SS Chauhan, educational psychology is the systematic study of the development of the individual in the educational environment.
- According to Pestologie, education is the natural, progressive and non-contradictory development of man’s abilities.
- According to John Dewey, education is the development of man’s abilities, with the help of which he attains his potential progress by controlling his environment.
- According to John F. Travers, educational psychology is the science in which the systematic study of students, teaching, and teaching are done.
- According to Skinner, the purpose of educational psychology is to contribute to the value and efficiency of the educational situation.
- According to Abhishek, defining the conclusions drawn by the human brain from the thoughts that come in the human mind with reference to any creature or creature is called psychology.
History of Psychology
Psychology in the pre-scientific era (pre-scientific period), the philosophy was a branch (Philosophy). When Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory in 1879, psychology was able to break away from the clutches of philosophy and gain the status of independent science.
The influence of philosophy on psychology
Along with scientific temper, philosophy has had a great influence on psychology. In fact, the scientific tradition began later, in the first place, instead of experiment or observation, exchange of ideas and thinking were the common methods of solving problems.
Descartes (1596 – 1650) made a distinction between humans and animals and said that humans have souls while animals work only like machines. Man has willpower because of the soul. The body and soul interact with each other at the pituitary gland. According to Descartes, there are some thoughts of man which can be called innate. They have nothing to do with experience. According to Leibniz (1646 – 1716), the whole matter is made up of the “monad” unit. By dividing the state of consciousness into different quantities, he prepared a foundation for the ideas of Freud to come about two hundred years later. lock(1632-1704) estimated that in order to understand the nature of man, it is necessary to know about the source of thoughts. He propounded the theory about the interrelationship of ideas and said that thoughts are like an element and the mind analyzes them. He said that the primary properties of everything are inherent in the object itself. Secondary qualities are not inherent in the object, but they are definitely realized by the particular object. Berkeley (1685–1753) said that reality is perceived not as matter but as a concept. Expressing his views about the sensation of distance, he said that with the help of blurring of orientation and automatic adjustment, we get the sensation of distance. Regarding the relationship between the mind and matter, Locke said that the mind is perceived by matter. Hume (1711–1776) mainly used “idea” and “conjecture”. Distinguishing that speculations are more stimulating and effective than ideas. Ideas can be considered copies of conjecture. Hume, while clarifying his ideas about the causality theory, provided a remarkable help in bringing modern psychology closer to the scientific method. Hartley (1705–1757) can be named among the somatic psychological philosophers. According to him, sensation occurs on the basis of vibrations in nerve fibers. In the background of this idea were the facts propounded by Newton which said that sensation continues even after the exciter is removed. Hartley laid more emphasis on the principle of proximity, stating the law of associative. It helped in bringing modern psychology closer to the scientific method. Hartley (1705–1757) can be named among the somatic psychological philosophers. According to him sensation occurs on the basis of vibrations in nerve fibers. In the background of this idea were the facts propounded by Newton which said that sensation continues even after the exciter is removed. Hartley laid more emphasis on the principle of proximity, stating the law of associative. It helped in bringing modern psychology closer to the scientific method. Hartley (1705–1757) can be named among the somatic psychological philosophers. According to him, sensation occurs on the basis of vibrations in nerve fibers. In the background of this idea were the facts propounded by Newton which said that sensation continues even after the exciter is removed. Hartley laid more emphasis on the principle of proximity, stating the law of associative.
For nearly 70 years after Hartley, no significant work was done in the field of associativeism. Meanwhile in Scotland, Reid (1710-1796) described the perception of objects and said that it is necessary to distinguish between perception and sensation. There is a sensation of the properties of a particular object while the perception of that whole thing takes place. The sensation is limited only to the properties of an object, but through perception, we have knowledge of that whole thing. Meanwhile, France AD Kandillac (1715-1780) laid the foundation for the tendencies of empiricism and La Matrié of materialism. Kandilank said that sensation is the “basic source” of all knowledge. He did not consider the ideas or experiences conveyed by Locke at all necessary. La Matri (1709–1751) said that thought arises as a result of the interaction between the brain and the nervous system. Like Descartes, he also considered man as a machine. He said that as the body and mind, the soul is also perishable. Laying the foundation of motivators in modern psychology, La Matri said that happiness is the ultimate goal of life.
James Mill (1773–1836) and later his son John Stuart Mill (1806–1873) developed mental chemistry. These two scholars formalized the trend of associativeism and created a suitable background for Wundt. The same applies to Ben (1818–1903). Kant adopted the method of subjectivism in solving problems that supported innateism in the theory of perception of the external world. Herbart (1776–1841) made an important contribution in giving a shape to psychology. According to him, psychology is an elemental, quantitative, and analytical science based on empiricism. He gave psychology a physical rather than a metaphysical basis, and Lotse (1817–1881) made further progress in this direction.
Beginning of the scientific study of psychological problems
The scientific study of psychological problems had already begun after their formal appearance. In 1834, Weber published his experimental research on tactile senses in a book form. In 1831, Fechner himself had published a very important article on the subject of measurement of unidirectional current electricity. A few years later, in 1847, Helmo put his scientific paper on energy conservation in front of the public. After this, in 1856 AD, 1860 AD, and 1866 AD, he published a book named “Optic” in three parts. In 1851 AD and in 1860, Fechner also published two important treatises from the psychological point of view (Zend Avesta and Elemente der Psychophysique.
In 1858, Wundt had obtained the degree of doctor in medical science at Heidelberg University and was working in the field of physiology on a cooperative post. Helmholtz also came from Bonn in the same year. This contact was very important for Wundt because after this he left action science and made psychology his field of work.
Wundt brought psychology out of a hazy and ambiguous philosophical environment by publishing numerous scientific articles and many important books. He only placed psychological problems in a scientific setting and inaugurated the tendency to think and experiment on them from a new perspective. From then onwards psychology came to be considered a science. Subsequently, as patients experimented with scientific procedures, new problems emerged.
Modern Psychology = In the historical background of modern psychology, its two definite forms are visible. One is scientific psychology influenced by scientific research and inventions and the other is philosophy psychology influenced by philosophy. Scientific psychology has its origins in the second half of the 19th century. In 1860, Fechner (1801–1887) published the book “Elements of Psychophysics” (English translation is also available) in German, in which he described three special methods of studying psychological problems in the context of the scientific method. Methodically described: mean error method, least change method, and constant excitatory distinction method. Even today, many important types of research are done in psychological laboratories on the basis of these systems.
Fechner is followed by two other important names in scientific psychology: Helmholtz (1821–1894) and Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920). Helmholtz, through many experiments, rendered important laws of vision. In this context, he raised the scientific existence of psychology through research work on perception. Wundt’s name is particularly noteworthy in psychology. In 1879, he established the first laboratory of psychology at the University of Leipzig (Germany).  Defined the formal form of psychology. In Leipzig’s laboratory, Wundt and his colleagues conducted remarkable experiments on a variety of problems in psychology, of which time-reaction experiments are particularly important.
The names of Herring (1834–1918), a scholar of physics, Mach (1838–1916), a scholar of physics, and G. E. Müller (1850 to 1934), are also notable. Herring was one of the major pioneers of phenomenology and much credit can be given to this trend to influence psychology. Mach conducted very impressive experimental research on the perception of physical rotation. He also laid the foundation of modern positivism at the same time. G E Mueller was actually a student of philosophy and history, but as a result of his correspondence with Fechner, his attention turned towards psychosomatic problems. He did research work in the field of memory and vision through psychosomatic methods. It is in this context that he also discovered the “Jast law”, i.e. if there are two associations of equal power, the old association will be stronger than the new as a result of repetition (” Jast law ” is named after Adolf Jasta, a student of Müller).
Schools & Branches of psychology
The main goal of psychology was the discovery of the laws of behavior. Various approaches were presented at the theoretical level. In the field of psychology around 1912, structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, Gestaltism, and psychoanalysis main branches were developed. The originators of all these claims were unanimous that the scientific study of human behavior is the aim of psychology. There was a difference of opinion among them as to which is the best way to achieve this objective. The followers of structuralism believed that in order to explain behavior it is necessary to understand the physical structures by which behavior is possible. The followers of functionalism said that instead of physical structure, there should be more emphasis on observable and visible behavior. It was on this basis that Watson later established Behaviorism. The Gestaltists considered perception as the fundamental basis of behavioral problems. In practice, the tendency to get the order in an organized way is the main, it was his opinion. Freud By establishing psychoanalysis attempted to state that most of the causes of our behavior are determined by unconscious processes.
sects of psychology
- 1879, Experimental Psychology, Structuralism – W. Wundt
- 1896 , Psychoanalysis – Sigmund Freud
- 1913, Behaviorism — John Brodus Watson
- 1954, Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy — Albert Ellis
- 1960, Cognitive Therapy — Aaron T. Back
- 1967, Cognitive Psychology — Ulrich Niger
- 1962, Humanistic Psychology — American Association of Humanistic Psychology
- 1940 , Gestaltism – Fritz Perls
All these “promises” now have some historical significance in modern psychology. In their place, various branches have been divided for the convenience of study in psychology.
In experimental psychology, mainly those problems were studied by the psychological method, which philosophers used to solve earlier by thinking or deliberation. That is sensation and perception. Later on, learning processes were also studied under it. Experimental psychology is the oldest branch of modern psychology.
Animals can be kept under more controlled conditions than humans, as well as the anatomy of animals is not as complex as that of humans. Knowledge of the rules of behavior can be easily done by experimenting with animals. Around 1912 AD, Thorndike developed comparative or animal psychology by experimenting with animals. But to know how far the results obtained on animals can be applied to humans, knowledge of developmental sequence was also necessary. Apart from this, the formulation of the rules of behavior can be possible only if there is a complete and proper knowledge of the development of humans or animals. Keeping this context in mind, developmental psychology was born. Shortly after 1912, as a result of the efforts of McDougall (1871–1938)Social psychology was established, although its foundation was laid much earlier by the social scientist Herbert Spencer (1820–1903). Gradually the influence of psychology on various branches of knowledge was felt. It was hoped that psychology could be useful in solving problems of other subjects. At the same time, different aspects of the problems to be studied emerged. As a result, new branches of psychology were developed. Some of these have emerged recently, of which motivational psychology, ontological psychology, and mathematical psychology are particularly notable.
There are both basic and applied branches of psychology. Its important branches are social and environmental psychology, organizational behavior/psychology, clinical (diagnostic) psychology, guidance and counseling, industrial psychology, developmental, criminological, experimental counseling, animal psychology, etc. Though different, these branches are related to each other.
Clinical Psychology -The need for clinical psychologists is increasing day by day due to clinical problems like neuroticism, psychoneurosis, psychosis, and problems like schizophrenia, hysteria, obsessive-compulsive disorder. The main function of such a psychologist is to diagnose diseases and use diagnostic and various remedial techniques.
Developmental psychology includes the psychological, cognitive, and social developments that occur throughout life. It studies the behavior or changes that take place from adult to old age during infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Earlier it was also called child psychology.
Criminal psychology is a challenging field, dealing with the behavior of criminals. Criminology is the branch of psychology, which deals with the investigation of crime and related facts.
Animal psychology is a wonderful branch.
The main branches of psychology are –
- Abnormal Psychology (Abnormal Psychology)
- Biological Psychology (Biological Psychology)
- Clinical Psychology (Clinical Psychology)
- Cognitive Psychology (Cognitive psychology)
- Community Psychology (Community Psychology)
- Comparative Psychology (Comparative psychology)
- Counseling Psychology (Counseling Psychology)
- Critical Psychology (Critical psychology)
- Developmental Psychology (Developmental Psychology)
- Educational Psychology (Educational Psychology)
- Developmental Psychology (Evolutionary psychology)
- Criminal Psychology (Forensic Psychology)
- Global Psychology (Global psychology)
- Health Psychology (Health psychology)
- Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Industrial and organizational psychology (I / O)
- Legal Psychology (Legal psychology)
- Occupational Health Psychology (Occupational health psychology (OHP)
- Personality Psychology (Personality psychology)
- Numerical Psychology (Quantitative psychology)
- Psychometry (Psychometrics)
- Mathematical Psychology (Mathematical psychology)
- Social Psychology (Social psychology)
- Schooling Psychology (School Psychology)
- Environmental Psychology (Environmental psychology)
- Yoga Psychology (Yoga Psychology)
Nature and Scope of Psychology
The most important category to understand the scope of psychology correctly is the category from which it shows what psychologists want. Psychologists can be divided into three categories on the basis of work done:
- In the first category are those psychologists who are engaged in teaching work,
- In the second category, those psychologists are kept who research on psychological problems and
- In the third category, those psychologists are placed who use skills and techniques in real situations on the basis of facts obtained from psychological studies.
In this way, there are three main areas of psychology – teaching, research, and application. The main facts related to these three fields are described below-
Teaching and research is a major area of work in psychology. From this point of view, psychologists show their interest in the following branches under this field-
(1) Life-span developmental psychology
(2) Human experimental psychology
(3) Animal Experimental Psychology
(4) Psychological Psychology
(5) Quantitative Psychology
(6) Personality Psychology
(7) Social Psychology
(8) Educational Psychology
(9) Cognitive Psychology
(10) Abnormal Psychology
Life-Span Developmental Psychology
Child psychology was initially concerned only with the study of child development, but in recent years emphasis has also been laid on the study of adolescence, adulthood, and old age in developmental psychology. This is why it is called ‘life span developmental psychology. In developmental psychology, psychology studies almost every area of human beings like intelligence, muscle development, emotional development, social development, play, language development from the developmental point of view. In this, the effects of some special factors such as heredity, maturity, family environment, socio-economic differences on the development of behavior are also studied. 5% of the total psychologists are psychologists working in the field of developmental psychology.
Human experimental psychology
Human is a field of experimental psychology where all those behavior of human beings are studied on which experiments are possible. Theoretically, it can be used on any aspect of human behavior, but psychologists try to experiment on that aspect which can be isolated and whose process of study is simple. In this way, a lot of experimental study of behaviors like vision, hearing, thinking, learning, etc. has been done. Human experimental psychology has also shown great interest in those psychologists who are called the founders of experimental psychology. Among them, the names of William Wundt, Titchener, and Watson, etc. are more famous.
Animal Experimental Psychology
This field of psychology is similar to human experimental psychology. The only difference is that here the experiment is done on animals like rats, cats, dogs, monkeys, orangutans, etc. Much of the research in animal experimental psychology has been devoted to the study of biological aspects of learning and behavior. In the field of animal experimental psychology, the names of Skinner, Guthrie, Pavlov, Tolman, etc. are prominently taken. The fact is that everything we know today about modern theories of learning and the biological aspect of human behavior, Its basis is animal experimental psychology. In this psychology, an attempt is made to understand the behavior of animals. Some people are of the opinion that if psychology is primarily concerned with the study of human behavior, then studying the behavior of animals does not seem much logical. But psychologists have some compulsions due to which they show interest in animal behavior. As such the study of animal behavior is less expensive. Then there are some experiments that are not possible to do on humans from an ethical point of view and the short life span of animals is the main reason. Some 14% of psychologists are employed in the field of human and animal experimental psychology. The short life span of animals is the main reason for this. Some 14% of psychologists are employed in the field of human and animal experimental psychology. The short life span of animals is the main reason for this. Some 14% of psychologists are employed in the field of human and animal experimental psychology.
The scope of psychologists in physical psychology is to study the physical determinants of animal behavior and their effects. Such is a branch of somatic psychology that is closely related to biological science. It is also called Psychobiology. Nowadays, psychologists have become more interested in the study of the relationship between brain functioning and behavior. This gave birth to a new interdisciplinary specialty called ‘neuroscience’. Similar somatic psychology is also interested in the study of the effects of hormones on behavior. Nowadays, various types of drugs and their effects on behavior are also being studied in somatic psychology. A new specialty has also been born from this,
Psychology-Definition, Branches, History, Scope, Nature