Theory of intelligence
Theory of intelligenceAll persons is equally qualified. Mental ability is the main reason for their disparity. As many children are gifted, and some are normal and some are retarded. Different psychologists have given different definitions of intelligence.
Definitions of intelligence
(1) According to Woodworth – “Wisdom is a method of action.” “Intelligence is a way of acting.”
(2) According to Terman – “Intelligence is the ability to think about abstract ideas.” “Intelligence is the ability to think in terms of abstract ideas.”
(3) Vine – “Wisdom is contained in these four words,- Knowledge, invention, instruction and criticism” “Comprehension, invention, dissection, and criticism -Intelligence is contained in these four words.”
(4) According to Buckingham – “Intellect is the power to learn.” “Intelligence is the ability to learn.”
Based on all these definitions intelligence is the following type of ability.
- Ability to learn
- Ability to think abstractly
- Ability to solve problems
- Ability to adjust to one’s environment
According to these definitions, intelligence does not include only one kind of capacity, but it includes many types of abilities.
Characteristics of intelligence
1. Intelligence is the innate power of a person.
2. Intelligence helps a person to learn various things.
3. Wisdom gives a person the ability to think abstractly.
4. Intelligence gives a person the ability to adjust to new situations.
5. Intelligence simplifies a person’s difficult situations and complex problems.
6. Wisdom gives a person the ability to benefit from his experiences.
7. Wisdom also gives a person the ability to differentiate between good, bad, true, false, moral, and immoral acts.
8. After gender discrimination, there is no effect of intelligence on the particular caste.
9. Inheritance has the main effect on intelligence and the effect of the environment is only up to 10 points.
10. Intelligence is not a single unit but a group of many units.
factors affecting intelligence
- Inheritance and environment
List of principles of intelligence
|one element theory||Alfred Binn|
|duality theory||Spearman (UK) 1914|
|plurality principle||Thorndike (USA) 1986|
|Bloom’s theory||BS Bloom|
|group element theory||Thurston – 1938|
|sample theory||Thomson 1955|
|three-dimensional theory||Gilford – 1967|
|Keitel and Hearn’s theory of intelligence||Cattle Horn|
|Order of Gradual Significance Theory||Burt and Vernon|
|Tri-Zapia\Tri-Ghatika Theory||Stern Berg|
|theory of multimetal competence||calli|
|Two-dimensional theory||Schlesingle and Gutman|
|principle of fluency||kettle|
|information processing theory||Stern Berg|
|Principle of Label-1 and Label-2||johnson|
|The principle of “a” and “b” of intelligence||hab|
Theory of intelligence
Psychologists in various countries have become increasingly interested in how intelligence is structured. And what factors are involved in it? As a result, different theories were given based on various factors which are as follows.
Uni Factor and two Factor theories of intelligence
(1) One Factor Theory(Uni-Factory)1905
Its exponent is the French psychologist Alfred Bienne. Terman (USA) and Stern supported it. He considered the intellect to be a monolithic and still divisible unit. According to this theory the various mental abilities of the individual function as a unit. If a person is proficient in a particular field. So he will be proficient in other areas as well. This opinion has been proved untrue by various examinations.
(2) Two factor theory
The exponent of this theory is Spear Man of Britain. According to him, there are two factors in the structure of intelligence. Where is one of these factors the general (General or G-factor) and the other a specific factor (specific or S-factor)?
(a) General factor \ G
By common cause, they mean that all persons have a common ability to do the job. So every person can do every work to some extent.
Features of G-factor:
- Spearman called the G-factor mental energy, that is, the G-factor is essential for all mental work. Its amount varies from person to person.
- This factor is innate in the individual. It always remains the same (immutable) in the individual. This training training does not affect. It is passed on from parents through genes.
- The amount of G-factor is different in each person, but there is a definite amount. That is, someone’s mental capacity may be more and some may be less.
- The more a person has this, the more successful he becomes.
- This can be transferred.
(b) specific factor \ (S)
This factor is related to the specific actions of the individual.
Features of S-Factor:
- The S-factor is not congenital. It is acquired, hence can be increased by this teaching or experiences. Like a person can become a singer after getting training.
- These factors are many and independent of each other. That is, if a person knows how to sing, then along with it he can also know painting. Both can have more or less S-factor. That is, the S-factor is variable.
- Different S-factors can be related to different efficient functions.
- This factor is present in different and different amounts in different individuals.
- A person gets special success in the skill related to the subject for which the S-factor is there. For example , someone has G as well as S-factor in the song.
- The transfer of the H factor cannot take place from one subject to another. It is not necessary that one who knows singing also knows painting well.
It is clear from this that for learning a particular or art, both factors are necessary.
(3) Three-factor theory 1911
Spearman modified his Hui factor theory by adding one factor and presented the three-factor theory of intelligence. He called the third factor the “Group factor”. He placed such qualifications in this asterisk, which, being superior to “general ability” and being inferior to “special abilities”, place between them. Group factor makes its group by mixing various specific factors and general factors. Thorndike criticized this theory and gave the multiple factor theory.
(4) Multi-factor theory
Thorndike was the exponent of this theory. In his theory, he considered intelligence to be a mixture of various factors. Which includes many qualifications. It works independently.
Thurston’s Group Factor Theory of Intelligence
Thurston is considered to be the exponent of this theory. According to the intelligence is neither a performance of general factors (G-factor) nor of specific factors (S-factor) . Rather, some fundamental factors demonstrate intelligence by working in groups. Two or more value factors together form a group, which reflect the intelligence of an individual in a given area.
Thurston explains the basic factor with intelligence which is as follows.
(1) Verbal ability
(2) Perceptual ability
(3) Spatial ability
(4) Numerical ability
(5) memory power
(6) Word fluency
(7) Logical power
Theory of intelligence, Definitions of intelligence