What is idealism?
What is idealism? Definition, Branches, and Historical 8PIdealism literally mean idealism in English. It is used for a branch of philosophy. High ideals are talked about in this philosophy. Philosophers related to this philosophy believe in the eternal existence of thought, so basically, this philosophy is “ideological philosophy or idealism”. Its literal translation in Hindi emerged. Although it would have been appropriate to use the word “idealism”, but keeping in mind the orthodox nature of the word, the word idealism is being used here.
According to idealism only thought is the truth, except this truth has no meaning and form. Our every behavior is controlled by the brain, so the brain is the real truth, the physical body is just its shadow. Man is actually a soul. The body is only its armor, which will be destroyed i.e. man is actually the truth of the self. In Western philosophy, it was seen as Manas. This is also called intellect; thought is the main element. Thought gives the mind, so this type of ideology is also called ideological or conceptualist, and believers are called spiritualists.
Definition of idealism
- According to Good sir, “Idealism is that ideology which holds that reality is inherent in transcendental universal elements, forms or ideas and that these are the objects of true knowledge, whereas Brahman forms are rooted in human thoughts and sensory experiences. which are similar to the reflection of thoughts.
- Rogen- “Idealists believe that the universe’s own intelligence and will and all material things can be explained by the mind behind them.”
- According to Horn, “The essence of the idealists is the universe, the manifestation of the intellect and will, the nature of the permanent element of the universe is mental and the materiality is explained by the intellect.”
- Henderson – “Idealism emphasizes the spiritual side of man. This is because spiritual values are important aspects of man and life.” Idealists believe that the individual and the world are both manifestations of the intellect. They say that the material world can be explained only by the mind.
Historical Background of Idealism
Our brain separated us from other living beings in the creation, by our power of deliberation, thinking, and understanding. Due to this mind, we got the power to think or reason in language, and the class of thinkers who showed more faith in the process of thinking giving importance to the brain, were called thinkers and this ideology was called idealism. Idealistic is said to be a very old ideology of life, since the time man started thinking and thinking, it is philosophy.
Its historical development is believed by Socrates and Plato in western countries. Thoughts on Brahma-contemplation are found in our country also from the Upanishad period, where discussions were held on the soul, the soul, the universe and we did not lag behind the western countries. The English word “idealism” is the exact sign of idealism, but according to the subject matter, instead of “idealism”, idealism seems closer and more meaningful.
In the Western world, the beginning of idealism is considered to be from Plato in the historical order. According to Plato– “The world is not in materiality, but its reality is in ideas and thoughts.” Man’s mind creates ideas. On the basis of logic, Plato has considered three eternal ideas. These three thoughts are Satyam, Shivam, Beautiful. Sensible objects are created by these three thoughts. Shiva’s idea is considered superior. The reason for this is that Plato has envisaged the individual mind as well as the social mind and also believed that the individual mind cannot remain separate from the social mind. The influence of Plato’s ideas was visible on the religion influenced by him. In the Hebrew tradition, God is considered rational. There has been a lot of discussion and discussion in our Hindu religion and all other religions on what is the relation between human beings and other conscious beings. According to religions, all living beings are said to be part of God, this is the idealistic view, according to which there is consciousness in all living beings. Later on, the dualism of René Descarte became famous. Descartes says that God created mind and matter. Descarte has called the senses of the senses deceptive. According to which all living beings have chid. Later on, the dualism of René Descarte became famous. Descartes says that God created mind and matter. Descarte has called the senses of the senses deceptive. According to which all living beings have chid. Later on, the dualism of René Descarte became famous. Descartes says that God created mind and matter. Descarte has called the senses of the senses deceptive.
After Descartes, Spinoza pursued idealism. Spinoza has put forward his theory of elements. Spinoza’s Element is eternal, it does not matter, it is an element that God is doing. After Spinoza, Leibniz’s philosophical philosophy became famous. According to Leibniz, the world is made up of objects, this mind is an ordinary, indivisible unit. In a complex form, it is called the soul. God is also the point of a higher soul class. There is also Leibniz’s social thought in Indian philosophy. According to metaphysics, just like Leibniz, there is the idea that matter is the mind and that all things are composed of spiritual atoms in harmony with each other. Berkeley has also considered the authority of the world like Leibniz but in a different way. Bekele considered the existence of matter to be on a spiritual basis only, that is why he considered God to be real.
Therefore, only when it is made visible by the mind, the existence of matter, which is proved with the help of various sensations, thoughts, and sensory experiences. The creation that is before us has a soul behind it. This soul is God. God is the one element that resides behind all the mental and physical worlds. Berkeley’s philosophy is called subjective idealism. Manuel Kant was considered another major idealist. Kant holds that there is a suspended object behind the perceived world. The immortality and freedom and moral primacy of the soul have already been the belief of Indians. It is said in Gita Darshan – “Nain Chhindati Shastrani Nainam Dahi Pavakah, Nain Kledayanti Aapo Nain Shoshayate Marutah”. i.e. sin, virtue, Ethical rules of good and bad, etc., and above all, the existence of God is the ancient belief of Indians. The influence of Kant led to the emergence of Fischte and Hegel in Germany, who contributed to the development of idealism.
Fischte laid great emphasis on the material side of life. It considered reality to be morally full of will and told this apparent world to develop man’s willpower, which builds his character. The spirit of the limitless and limitless soul is also found in Indian philosophy and Fichte’s anomalous world points towards the material nature.
After Fichte, Hegel made an impact in the field of idealistic philosophy, his philosophy is called Universal Consciousness, he saw the whole world as the whole and related to the totality of each episode of experience. According to Hengel, thus the eternal soul or the Brahma form of God in the world, and understanding the world is also necessary to understand the form of God because there are two forms of knowledge Brahman and inner. Indian ideology has also called God as Sarvabhuteshu and Sarvabhuta interest.
Hegley had influence on Schelling and Schopenhauer. Schelling considered the extreme as a separate entity from the self and the non-self, the known and the unknowable. In a way, the spirit of Indian duality is found in it. Schopenhauer converted his extreme to ultimate desire and said that the world is my thought, thus calling desire the ultimate. Schopenhauer looked at the material nature and called it the unconscious. Inert nature cannot be called extreme. All these philosophers have had a great influence on the philosophers of France, Italy, Russia, England, and America. In France, there were idealists like Bergson Krauss and Gentile. In Russia, idealists such as Marx and Engel Huey and in England grew idealists such as Coleridge Green, Signal, Caird, Bosanke, and Bradley.
In India during the Vedic period, the pluralists were idealists. With Islamic philosophy, there are forms of monism, dualism, specific dualism, etc. Even today, educationists like Dayanand, Vivekananda, Arvind, Tagore, Gandhi, Ramakrishna, Radhakrishna, and some Muslim thinkers like Abul Kalam Azad, Zakir Hussain, Seyden are counted.
Basis of idealism
- Ideas the basis of idealism – The pure name of idealism should be idealism because its main basis is thought. The reality of the world is dependent on thoughts. The existence of nature and material matter is the cause of thoughts. The basis of idealism is not the physical world but the mental or spiritual world. Ideas are final and of universal importance. They are the essence of material patterns that give shape to the world, the criteria by which the objects of the sense experiential are judged.
- The basis of idealism is the soul – a second basis is an inner world, which is called the soul or mind. Because of this, thoughts are received and those thoughts get reality, the basis of the world is the mind. It is not mechanical, we cannot reduce life to complex physicochemical forces. It is based on Manas. The matter is considered to be an external form of the mind. The basis of idealism is logic and intelligence – The third basis of idealism can be called logic and intelligence. In this regard, the ideas of Plato and Socrates meet in a way that man has the power of reason and ideas are obtained only through logic.
- The basis of idealism Human – The fourth basis of idealism can be considered human. The soul is guided by the higher body and thoughts, logic, and intellect. Human beings are living beings who have the unique power to experience them, hold them, and use them. Man is counted as the best among all beings and animals because he is the doer of great experience and is given glory and support, and he has dominion over all other actions of God. The soul which is in man, in fact, various higher powers are vested in him, in him, there are logic, intelligence, value, moral, religious, and spiritual beings.
- The basis of idealism State – The fifth basis of idealism, Hagel has considered the state. In this regard, Kerningham is of the view that for Hegel, the state is the highest revelation in the world of the Great Spirit, whose development through time is the greatest ideal. The kingdom is a divine thought that exists on this earth. From this, it is known that the concept of the state is due to an idealistic base.
Key Elements of Idealistic Philosophy
- Tattva Mimasan – All idealists believe that this world is not physical but mental or spiritual. The world is a system of thoughts, the forefront of reasoning. Prakriti is the action or feeling of the mind. The basis of material creation is the mental world, which understands and values it. In the absence of the mental world, the physical world would be meaningless. According to idealism, this world is purposeful.
- Self or Atman – The idealist considers the nature of the self to be spiritual and puts “self” as paramount in metaphysics. If the world of experience is more important than the Brahman creation, then the experiencing man should be even more important. According to idealism, the nature of the “self” is independent, it has will power, therefore it has the ability to bring change in material creation. Man is the best unit in the process of evolution.
- Adrshwad- in epistemology idealistic knowledge of Vivche is a not prudent method of Yew truth. They try to find those general principles in the universe, which can be given the form of universal truth. From this point of view they hold that truth exists, but not because it is created by the individual or society. Truth can be discovered. When it is discovered then it will be the absolute truth. Idealists believe that God or the Absolute Mind or Atman is the truth.
- Value Idealism- What is Shiva? In this regard, idealists say that good life can be lived only by establishing harmony with the universe. Shiva or good can be attained only by imitating the Absolute. Idealists are of the opinion that when human behavior is according to the universal moral law, then it is acceptable. What is beautiful? According to the idealists, this absolute power is Sundaram. Whatever is beautiful in this world, it is only a part of it, that is, its shadow. When we aestheticize a work of art, we do so because it is a true representative of the Absolute. Idealists consider music to be the best kind of aesthetic creation.
Branches of idealism
There are many branches and branches of idealistic philosophy, but the main five among them are-
- Plata’s Objective Idealism- This branch is also called Realistic Idealism. According to Plato, thoughts are eternal, omnipresent, and eternal. They exist in their own right. They are neither dependent on God nor on the world. It existed before, and they will remain after our end. Thought is the essence of the things of this world. We know the incomplete copy of these eternal thoughts through experience. According to Plato, the realization of these complete thoughts comes from the knowledge of the senses rather than the senses. The knowledge acquired by the senses is incomplete and inconsistent, while the knowledge of discretion leads to the grasp of principles, which are always true.
- Berkeley’s Individualistic Idealism – John Locke accepted Newton’s theory that the basis of the world is the puddle, in which the senses are long, wide, thick, color, sound, distance, pressure, etc. Berkeley rejected the authority of Pudgal and also the duality of virtues. According to him we only see the virtues, we don’t see anything like the virtuous. The object is only that set of qualities, and the quality is subjective (subject), therefore only the mind or soul exists, not the object. On this basis, he concluded that not only the secondary quality but also the primary quality is mental and not physical. According to Berkeley, our knowledge of relation to self is indirect and inferred knowledge, which can be experienced through the senses.
- Kant’s metaphysical idealism – Like Plato and Buckley, Kanta also does not accept matter as truth. He considers reasoning as the coordinating center of all our experiences. According to him, the knowledge of cosmic matter is not directly but indirectly. For direct knowledge, Kant considers the elements of space and time as the main ones. Because of these two qualities, we get knowledge of the external world. Perceptual knowledge is also diffused, Kant considers reasoning necessary to receive it in an integrated form. This process of self-realization is known as Kant’s concept, Kant has divided the known concepts into 12 parts. Kant considered the human soul or “self” to be paramount. Like all idealists, he also considers himself to be psychic and not material. According to Kant, the mind is the creator of space and time, and conceptually the holder of the above classification is the human soul above all.
- Hagel’s Dialectics – According to Hagel, our knowledge of the existence and its relation is identical and our knowledge is logical and rational and due to this logical system of existence itself, the knowledge of man is able to accept the existence to the extent that there should be symmetry between our knowledge and being. Hegel believes that the world is moving towards active development at an uninterrupted pace, through the process of evolution, the world is moving towards an inherent purpose in itself. The purpose of this evolution is to become aware of the goal and destiny inherent in oneself. Hegel takes forward the idea of evolution by saying that “power” is the development of thought in the mind of the Supreme Being. Cosmic Consciousness (Paramevara) develops in the form of being in three states namely, Establishment, Substitution, and Establishment. Hegel regards it as a process of moving towards greater perfection.
- Theory of Ethics – This dialectical thinking style is also used by Hagel in the field of ethics. Group morality, which is reflected in social institutions, can guide individual morality.
- Modern Idealism – The beginning of idealism in Europe ended with Hegel. Marx adopted Hegel’s dialectics but adopted materialism in metaphysics. Idealist ideology took a new form in England, Scotland, Italy, and the United States. In Britain, the names of Samuel, Coleridge, James, Hutchison, Stingy, John Caird, Bernard, Bosake Bradley Nuns, etc. are taken.
Main principles of idealism
Thomas and Lang have given the principles of idealism-
- The real world is mental and spiritual.
- The true reality is spirituality.
- Idealism has faith in man because he is full of special qualities of thinking, reasoning, and intelligence.
- Whatever the mind gives to the world, that alone is real.
- The highest form of knowledge is the inner vision and the supreme knowledge of the soul.
- There are three eternal values of Satyam Shivam Sundaram and it is imperative to attain them in life.
- The true reality of the senses cannot be known.
- The visible self-reliance of nature is illusory.
- God is related to the mind.
- The physical and natural worlds—what science knows about—are imperfect expressions of reality.
- Whatever exists in the supreme mind is the truth and is the spiritual essence.
- Thoughts, knowledge, art, morals, and religion are important aspects of life.
- Our conscience and mental and spiritual vision are the only true means of attaining true knowledge.
- The development of man depends on his physical and spiritual powers.
What is idealism? Definition, Branches, and Historical Background of Idealism