What is the theory of Cognitive Development?

What is the theory of Cognitive Development?Cognition is the mental process of acquiring knowledge and understanding things through thought, experience, and the senses. Through this thoughts are born in our mind and we are also able to make predictions about something. The concept of cognition is very important in psychology because it broadens our understanding of learning.

The study of cognition helps us to understand the process of learning in a meaningful way. If we understand this, then we can differentiate between rote memorizing and understanding while making meaning. For example, when some information is already present in our long-term memory and we can associate it with new information or sensory input, it creates a kind of meaningful relationship that helps to understand the information. is.

Cognition is studied extensively in the theory of cognitive development. The English translation of the word cognate is cognitive. The effort we make to understand the external world through our senses is called cognition. Cognition means knowing. The psychologists who gave special importance to this created the cognitions group.

According to this, a person learns by using his mental powers with his environment and surroundings. Its founder is considered to be the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. He propounded the theory of cognitive development in psychology. According to this, learning is more meaningful when it is in line with the interest and curiosity of the student.

What is cognitive development?

Jean Piaget believes that cognitive development is based on discovery rather than imitation. In this, a person builds his understanding based on the direct experience of his senses. For example, when a small child touches a burning lamp out of curiosity, he realizes after burning that it is a scary thing, he should stay away from it. He doesn’t have enough words to express his experience, but he knows it’s okay to watch it from afar. He points to others in gestures expressing his fear.

Gene Pyajhe propounded by cognitive development theory (theory of cognitive development) human intelligence is a comprehensive theory concerning nature and development. Piaget believed that childhood plays an important role in a person’s development. Page of principle, Vicasi curve theory is called (developmental stage theory). This theory is about the nature of knowledge and explains how human beings acquire knowledge gradually, how it is added one by one, and how it is used.

the person perceives the elements of the environment; That is, recognizes, tries to understand them with the help of symbols, and thinks abstractly about the object/person concerned. A knowledge store or cognitive structure within him consisting of all the above processes guides his behavior. Thus we can say that a person does not react directly to any kind of stimuli present in the environment, first, he identifies, receives, interprets those stimuli. Thus we can say that the cognitive structure acts as a mediator between the stimuli present in the environment and the behavior.

This type of learning is about active learning. Its person interacts actively with his surroundings and environment. In this, while doing some work, a person incorporates new ideas in one thought. One can see and understand his clear association with him. This process is called assimilation or assimilation.

What is the theory of Cognitive Development?

Along with this, another process also goes on simultaneously, which is called settlement and balance. In this process of adjustment of new object and idea takes place. Such adjustment is a lifelong process. In the current era, the pace of change is very fast, so this process becomes very important. Understanding the whole process from a psychological point of view helps us to understand the behavior of individuals.

4 types Stages of cognitive development 

Jean Piaget divided cognitive development into four stages:

  1.  Sensory-Motor: 2 years of birth
  2.  Pre-operational: 2-7 years
  3.  Concrete Operational: 7 to 12 years
  4.  Formal Operational: 12 to 15 years

Stages of cognitive development

According to Piaget, the stages of development are gradual.


  1. – This stage lasts from birth to 2 years. In this, the physical development of the child takes place rapidly. Emotions also develop within him.


  • Pre-operative stage – from birth to 7 years. In this stage, the child collects new information and experiences. It is at this stage that the sense of self-centredness in the child finds expression. Piaget says that a child under the age of six is ​​found to lack cognitive maturity.

Concrete Operational:

  • Tangible operational stage – It lasts for seven to 11 years. At this age, the child exhibits various mental talents. For example, a child studying in the first grade heard a poem related to a parrot in which the doctor puts a needle to the parrot and the parrot says ooey…. Hearing this, the first-class student said, “This is a lie. The doctor puts the needle to the parrot a little bit.” Here a six-seven-year-old child is exhibiting the talent of seeing the idea expressed in the poem in the mirror of his experiences in a very realistic way, which can be seen and understood. Is required.

Formal Operational:

  • Formal-operational stage – This stage starts from the age of 11 and continues till adulthood. In this stage, the child can think about the problems in a conceptual way. For example, a student of class VII says that Sir taught us that Gandhi had three monkeys. We learn from them that we should not see, hear and say bad things. I said all right. Children of this age also easily believe what they hear. Then there was talk that without seeing how we can know what is right and wrong, the same thing applies in the context of listening. We can choose terms of speaking but it comes only after the first two things. That is, we should use our senses to understand the environment around us so that we can understand what is really happening, and only then we can decide right and wrong.

Process and structure of cognitive development 

Jean Piaget has mainly considered two things to be important in the process of cognitive development. First organization second adaptation. Organization refers to the various activities in the intellect such as perception, memory, thinking, and reasoning, all organized together eg. About the stimuli present in a child’s environment, his various mental activities do not act separately but work together in concert. Adjustment to the environment is the result of the organization itself. The organization internally affects the relationship between the individual and the environment. Adaptation effects externally.


What is the theory of Cognitive Development?

Categories: Psychological